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Bucharest's seven hills are: The altitude varies from Until recently, the regions surrounding Bucharest were largely rural, but after , suburbs started to be built around Bucharest, in the surrounding Ilfov County.
Further urban consolidation is expected to take place in the late s, when the "Bucharest Metropolitan Area" plan will become operational, incorporating additional communes and cities from the Ilfov and other neighbouring counties.
Bucharest has a humid continental climate Dfa. Owing to its position on the Romanian Plain, the city's winters can get windy, though some of the winds are mitigated due to urbanisation.
Although average precipitation and humidity during summer are low, occasional heavy storms occur. Bucharest has a unique status in Romanian administration, since it is the only municipal area that is not part of a county.
The Bucharest-Ilfov development region is not, however, an administrative entity yet. The city government is headed by a general mayor Primar General.
Decisions are approved and discussed by the capital's General Council Consiliu General made up of 55 elected councilors. Furthermore, the city is divided into six administrative sectors sectoare , each of which has its own seat sectoral council, town hall, and mayor.
The powers of the local government over a certain area are, therefore, shared both by the Bucharest municipality and the local sectoral councils with little or no overlapping of authority.
The general rule is that the main capital municipality is responsible for citywide utilities such as the water and sewage system, the overall transport system, and the main boulevards, while sectoral town halls manage the contact between individuals and the local government, secondary streets and parks maintenance, schools administration, and cleaning services.
The six sectors are numbered from one to six and are disposed radially so that each one has under its administration a certain area of the city centre.
They are numbered clockwise and are further divided into sectoral quarters cartiere which are not part of the official administrative division:.
Each sector is governed by a local mayor, as follows: Like all other local councils in Romania, the Bucharest sectoral councils, the capital's general council , and the mayors are elected every four years by the population.
Additionally, Bucharest has a prefect , who is appointed by Romania's national government. The prefect is not allowed to be a member of a political party and his role is to represent the national government at the municipal level.
The prefect is acting as a liaison official facilitating the implementation of national development plans and governing programs at local level.
The prefect of Bucharest as of [update] is Paul Nicolae Petrovan. The city's general council has the following current political composition, based on the results of the Romanian local elections:.
Bucharest's judicial system is similar to that of the Romanian counties. Bucharest also houses the general inspectorates of the Gendarmerie and the national police.
Petty crime, however, is more common, particularly in the form of pickpocketing , which occurs mainly on the city's public transport network. Confidence tricks were common in the s, especially in regards to tourists, but the frequency of these incidents has since declined.
However, in general, theft was reduced by Although the presence of street children was a problem in Bucharest in the s, their numbers have declined in recent years, now lying at or below the average of major European capital cities.
An estimated 1, street children still inhabit the city,  some of whom engage in petty crime and begging. As stated by the Mercer international surveys for quality of life in cities around the world, Bucharest occupied the 94th place in  and slipped lower, to the th place in and the th place in Compared to it, Vienna occupied number one worldwide in and Mercer Human Resource Consulting issues yearly a global ranking of the world's most livable cities based on 39 key quality-of-life issues.
Mercer collects data worldwide, in cities. The difficult situation of the quality of life in Bucharest is confirmed also by a vast urbanism study, done by the Ion Mincu University of Architecture and Urbanism.
In , Bucharest's urban situation was described as 'critical' by a Romanian Order of Architects OAR report that criticised the city's weak, incoherent and arbitrary public management policies, its elected officials' lack of transparency and public engagement, as well as its inadequate and unsustainable use of essential urban resources.
Kiseleff Road , as seen from above. As per the census , 1,, inhabitants lived within the city limits, a decrease from the figure recorded at the census.
In a study published by the United Nations, Bucharest placed 19th in among 28 cities that recorded sharp declines in population from to the mids.
In particular, the population fell by 3. The city's population, according to the census, was 1,, inhabitants,  or 8. A significant number of people commute to the city every day, mostly from the surrounding Ilfov County, but official statistics regarding their numbers do not exist.
Bucharest is a city of high population density: However, this also depends on the part of the city: Of the European Union country capital-cities, only Paris and Athens have a higher population density see List of European Union cities proper by population density.
One of the predominantly Greek neighborhoods was Vitan — where a Jewish population also lived with a population of 69, In terms of religious affiliation, Female life expectancy was In January , Bucharest had an unemployment rate of 2.
Bucharest's economy is centered on industry and services , with services particularly growing in importance in the last 10 years.
The headquarters of , firms, including nearly all large Romanian companies, are located in Bucharest. Bucharest is also Romania's largest centre for information technology and communications and is home to several software companies operating offshore delivery centres.
Romania's largest stock exchange, the Bucharest Stock Exchange , which was merged in December with the Bucharest-based electronic stock exchange Rasdaq , plays a major role in the city's economy.
The city is undergoing a retail boom, with supermarkets and hypermarkets opened every year see supermarkets in Romania.
Traditional retail arcades and markets include the one at Obor. Office buildings on Nicolae Titulescu Street. Bucharest's public transport system is the largest in Romania and one of the largest in Europe.
In addition, a private minibus system operates there. As of [update] , a limit of 10, taxicab licenses was imposed. The main railway station is Gara de Nord "North Station" , which provides connections to all major cities in Romania, as well as international destinations: These are in the process of being integrated into a commuter railway serving Bucharest and the surrounding Ilfov County.
Seven main lines radiate out of Bucharest. The oldest station in Bucharest is Filaret. It was inaugurated in , and in , the communist government turned it in a bus terminal.
Bucharest has two international airports:. Bucharest is a major intersection of Romania's national road network.
A few of the busiest national roads and motorways link the city to all of Romania's major cities, as well as to neighbouring countries such as Hungary , Bulgaria and Ukraine.
A series of high-capacity boulevards, which generally radiate out from the city centre to the outskirts, provides a framework for the municipal road system.
The main axes, which run north-south, east-west and northwest-southeast, as well as one internal and one external ring road, support the bulk of the traffic.
The city's roads are usually very crowded during rush hours, due to an increase in car ownership in recent years. In , the number of cars registered in Bucharest amounted to 1,, A comprehensive effort on behalf of the City Hall to boost road infrastructure was made, and according to the general development plan, 2, roads have been repaired by On 17 June , the Basarab Overpass was inaugurated and opened to traffic, thus completing the inner city traffic ring.
The overpass took five years to build and is the longest cable-stayed bridge in Romania and the widest such bridge in Europe;  upon completion, traffic on the Grant Bridge and in the Gara de Nord area became noticeably more fluid.
Works on the canal were suspended in , but proposals have been made to resume construction as part of the European Strategy for the Danube Region.
Bucharest has a growing cultural scene, in fields including the visual arts, performing arts, and nightlife. Unlike other parts of Romania, such as the Black Sea coast or Transylvania , Bucharest's cultural scene has no defined style, and instead incorporates elements of Romanian and international culture.
Bucharest has landmark buildings and monuments. The building boasts one of the largest convention centres in the world.
A newer landmark of the city is the Memorial of Rebirth , a stylized marble pillar unveiled in to commemorate the victims of the Romanian Revolution of , which overthrew Communism.
The Romanian Athenaeum building is considered to be a symbol of Romanian culture and since is on the list of the Label of European Heritage sites.
InterContinental Bucharest is a high-rise five-star hotel situated near University Square and is also a landmark of the city.
The building is designed so that each room has a unique panorama of the city. This edifice built in the characteristic style of the large-scale Soviet projects, was intended to be representative to the new political regime and to assert the superiority of the Communist doctrine.
In terms of visual arts , the city has museums featuring both classical and contemporary Romanian art, as well as selected international works.
Other, smaller, museums contain specialised collections. The Zambaccian Museum , which is situated in the former home of art collector Krikor H. Another impressive art collection gathering important Romanian painters, can be found at the Ligia and Pompiliu Macovei residence, which is open to visitors as it is now part of the Bucharest Museum patrimony.
The Theodor Pallady Museum is situated in one of the oldest surviving merchant houses in Bucharest and includes works by Romanian painter Theodor Pallady , as well as European and oriental furniture pieces.
Despite the classical art galleries and museums in the city, a contemporary arts scene also exists. Private art galleries are scattered throughout the city centre.
The palace of the National Bank of Romania houses the national numismatic collection. Exhibits include banknotes, coins, documents, photographs, maps, silver and gold bullion bars, bullion coins, and dies and moulds.
The building was constructed between and The thesaurus room contains notable marble decorations. National Bank of Romania. National Museum of Art of Romania.
Museum of Art Collections. Performing arts are some of the strongest cultural elements of Bucharest. The most famous symphony orchestra is National Radio Orchestra of Romania.
One of the most prominent buildings is the neoclassical Romanian Athenaeum , which was founded in , and hosts classical music concerts, the George Enescu Festival , and is home to the George Enescu Philharmonic Orchestra.
Bucharest is home to the Romanian National Opera and the I. Another well-known theatre in Bucharest is the State Jewish Theatre , which features plays starring world-renowned Romanian-Jewish actress Maia Morgenstern.
Bucharest is home to Romania's largest recording labels, and is often the residence of Romanian musicians. Hip-hop bands and artists from Bucharest such as B.
Bucharest's jazz profile has especially risen since , with the presence of two venues, Green Hours and Art Jazz, as well as an American presence alongside established Romanians.
With no central nightlife strip, entertainment venues are dispersed throughout the city, with clusters in Lipscani and Regie. A number of cultural festivals are held in Bucharest throughout the year, but most festivals take place in June, July, and August.
The National Opera organises the International Opera Festival every year in May and June, which includes ensembles and orchestras from all over the world.
The Romanian Athaeneum Society hosts the George Enescu Festival at locations throughout the city in September every two years odd years.
The Museum of the Romanian Peasant and the Village Museum organise events throughout the year, showcasing Romanian folk arts and crafts.
In the s, due to the growing prominence of the Chinese community in Bucharest, Chinese cultural events took place.
In , Bucharest was the first city in Southeastern Europe to host the international CowParade , which resulted in dozens of decorated cow sculptures being placed across the city.
In , Bucharest imposed in the circle of important festivals in Eastern Europe with the Bucharest International Film Festival, an event widely acknowledged in Europe, having as guests of honor famous names from the world cinema: Since , Bucharest has its own contemporary art biennale , the Bucharest Biennale.
Traditional Romanian culture continues to have a major influence in arts such as theatre, film, and music. Patronized by the Ministry of Culture, the museum preserves and exhibits numerous collections of objects and monuments of material and spiritual culture.
The Museum of the Romanian Peasant holds one of the richest collections of peasant objects in Romania, its heritage being nearly 90, pieces, those being divided into several collections: The Museum of Romanian History is another important museum in Bucharest, containing a collection of artefacts detailing Romanian history and culture from the prehistoric times, Dacian era, medieval times, and the modern era.
Bucharest is the seat of the Patriarch of the Romanian Orthodox Church , one of the Eastern Orthodox churches in communion with the Patriarch of Constantinople , and also of its subdivisions, the Metropolis of Muntenia and Dobrudja and the Archbishopric of Bucharest.
Orthodox believers consider Demetrius Basarabov to be the patron saint of the city. The latter was converted into the Museum of the History of the Romanian Jewish Community, while the Great Synagogue and the Choral Temple are both active and hold regular services.
Later the project was abandoned . Palace of the Patriarchate. The city centre is a mixture of medieval, neoclassical, and art nouveau buildings, as well as 'neo-Romanian' buildings dating from the beginning of the 20th century and a collection of modern buildings from the s and s.
Recently built contemporary structures such as skyscrapers and office buildings complete the landscape. Of the city's medieval architecture, most of what survived into modern times was destroyed by Communist systematization , fire, and military incursions.
Some medieval and renaissance edifices remain, the most notable are in the Lipscani area. This precinct contains notable buildings such as Manuc's Inn Hanul lui Manuc and the ruins of the Old Court Curtea Veche ; during the late Middle Ages, this area was the heart of commerce in Bucharest.
From the s onwards, the area went through urban decline, and many historical buildings fell into disrepair. The city centre has retained architecture from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, particularly the interwar period , which is often seen as the "golden age" of Bucharest architecture.
During this time, the city grew in size and wealth, therefore seeking to emulate other large European capitals such as Paris.
In Romania, the tendencies of innovation in the architectural language met the need of valorisation and affirmation of the national cultural identity.
Many large-scale constructions such as Gara de Nord, the busiest railway station in the city, National Bank of Romania's headquarters, and the Telephone Palace date from these times.
In the s, historic buildings in the city centre underwent restoration. In some residential areas of the city, particularly in high-income central and northern districts, turn-of-theth-century villas were mostly restored beginning in the late s.
National Military Circle Romanian: National Museum of History Romanian: French Baroque style — Cantacuzino Palace. Headquarters of the Romanian Commercial Bank Romanian: A major part of Bucharest's architecture is made up of buildings constructed during the Communist era replacing the historical architecture with high-density apartment blocks — significant portions of the historic center of Bucharest were demolished to construct one of the largest buildings in the world, the Palace of the Parliament then officially called the House of the Republic.
The mass demolitions that occurred in the s, under which an overall area of eight square kilometres of the historic center of Bucharest were leveled, including monasteries, churches, synagogues, a hospital, and a noted Art Deco sports stadium, changed drastically the appearance of the city.
Communist-era architecture can also be found in Bucharest's residential districts, mainly in blocuri , which are high-density apartment blocks that house the majority of the city's population.
Initially, these apartment blocks started to be constructed in the s, on relatively empty areas and fields good examples include Pajura, Drumul Taberei, Berceni and Titan , however with the s, they mostly targeted peripheral neighborhoods such as Colentina, Pantelimon, Militari and Rahova.
There is also communist architecture that was built in the early years of the system, in the late s and s. Standardized apartment blocks built as part of systematization.
Renovated Plattenbau -like socialist apartment blocks on Dimitrie Cantemir Boulevard, built Since the fall of Communism in , several Communist-era buildings have been refurbished, modernized, and used for other purposes.
Another example is the conversion of a large utilitarian construction in Centrul Civic into a Marriott Hotel. This process was accelerated after , when the city underwent a property boom, and many Communist-era buildings in the city centre became prime real estate due to their location.
Many Communist-era apartment blocks have also been refurbished to improve urban appearance. Buildings from this time are mostly made of glass and steel, and often have more than 10 storeys.
Examples include shopping malls particularly the Bucharest Mall, a conversion and extension of an abandoned building , office buildings, bank headquarters, etc.
During the last ten years, several high rise office buildings were built, particularly in the northern and eastern parts of the city.
In , the Bucharest skyline enriched with a m-high office building SkyTower of Floreasca City Center , currently the tallest building in Romania.
Despite this development on vertical, Romanian architects avoid designing very tall buildings due to vulnerability to earthquakes.
Aside from buildings used for business and institutions, residential developments have also been built, many of which consist of high-rise office buildings and suburban residential communities.
An example of a new high rise residential complex is Asmita Gardens. These developments are increasingly prominent in northern Bucharest, which is less densely populated and is home to middle- and upper-class Bucharesters due to the process of gentrification.
These are supplemented by 19 private universities, such as the Romanian-American University and Spiru Haret University , the latter being the largest in Europe with some , enrolled students in Overall, faculties are in 34 universities.
Private universities, however, have a mixed reputation due to irregularities in the educational process  as well as perceived corruption.
The first modern educational institution was the Princely Academy from Bucharest , founded in and divided in to form the present-day University of Bucharest and the Saint Sava National College , both of which are among the most prestigious of their kind in Romania.
Over public primary and secondary schools are in the city, all of which are administered by the Bucharest Municipal Schooling Inspectorate. Steaua has never had a standard playing kit.
However, the most widely used throughout time was the combination of red shirts, blue shorts and red socks. Other variants have been all-red, all-blue and also shirts in vertical red and blue stripes during the s and s.
Other kit colours have very rarely been used. Exceptions were the European Cup Final in which Steaua wore, for the only time in their history, an all-white kit, the —00 away kit yellow and red , the —06 third kit yellow and black , the —12 and —16 away kit all-yellow , the —14 away kit all-sky blue or sky blue shirts with dark blue shorts and socks.
For the —17 season, the away kit is all-white. The Ministry of National Defense sued Steaua in , claiming that the Romanian Army were the rightful owners of the Steaua logo, among others.
Steaua's kit is currently manufactured by Nike , who have held the contract since , after a long partnership with Adidas. Steaua played the first three matches in its history at the defunct Venus stadium.
From to , Steaua played its home matches at the Stadionul Ghencea , a football stadium situated in South-Western Bucharest. The original capacity was 30, on benches.
A general renovation occurred in ; this included installing seats, which dropped the capacity to 28, The Romania national team was also a tenant for numerous fixtures.
In the —17 domestic league season FCSB drew an average home attendance of 5,, the best in the Romanian league.
Their highest home attendance was 35, in that league season. Steaua has the largest number of supporters of any team in Romania. The group quickly reached an impressive number of members, but, in , they dissolved due to internal problems.
Several important groups such as Stil Ostil , Ultras , Banda Ultra' and South Boys retired from attending Steaua's matches due to the club's constant abuses towards them and, mainly, to the current ownership of Steaua.
AISS was formed as a legal entity with its stated goals of "protecting the interests and image of Steaua supporters", as well as "identifying and promoting the club's perennial values".
Steaua's Peluza Nord and Peluza Sud fan groups no longer support the current team, as a sign of protest. They have instead started to attend the matches of CSA Steaua.
However, an online poll conducted by Sport. A heavy debated topic about the fans is the one related to racism. In the 21st century , crowd turbulence has been one of the club's main problems.
Liga I matchday suspensions and UEFA suspensions have been dictated against the Ghencea-based club out of reasons such as crowd trouble, racial chants or torch lighting.
Eternul derby "The Eternal Derby" has been the leading Romanian football encounter in the last 60 years, as Steaua and Dinamo are the two most successful football teams in the country.
Several clashes between different factions of supporters have often occurred and still occur inside and outside the stadium.
The heyday was reached before a match kick-off in , when Dinamo's fans set a sector of Stadionul Ghencea 's Peluza Sud , where they were assigned, on fire.
Just as well, a period of 17 years and 7 months has been recorded in which Dinamo did not manage to win away against Steaua in the domestic league.
Several matches throughout the years between Steaua and Rapid have also ended in serious clashes between fans. Steaua has previously been known as the club of the Romanian Army , which founded it in as a sports society.
At present, Becali has no official links with Steaua, as he gradually renounced his shares. However, the facts that the current shareholders, that include several nephews of his,  are people loyal to him and that he is still in charge of Steaua are obvious.
George Becali is a highly controversial figure at Steaua, whose involvement in the life of the club and the team has often been described as authoritarian and dictatorial by both the media and the fans.
As Steaua is currently the most popular football team in Romania,  a good number of musicians or TV and film directors have inspired themselves from ideas linked to the Ghencea-based club.
Popular reference, however, appeared only after the Romanian Revolution, as before, mass-media programmes were mostly being controlled by the former communist regime.
The Romanian film Furia depicts scenes in which Steaua and Dinamo gangs of supporters are fighting on the streets after a direct match between the two sides.
Several other examples from music can be attributed as Steaua-related. One of the most famous pop-culture references about the club is the association with Scooter 's song Maria , first sung spontaneously in by the fans in Peluza Nord after the team would score.
Ever since, it has been adopted as an unofficial club anthem and is being played at the stadium at every match, sung together by the supporters.
Nonetheless, the song is beginning to lose popularity, mainly because it has become too commercial and many fans do not feel bonded with it any more.
Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Steaua currently boasts itself with the most impressive pedigree in Romania. At the same time, the club is the current record holder for the number of national championships 26 , national cups 22 , national super cups 6 and the national league cup 2.
Internationally, it is the only Romanian club to have won continental trophies the European Champions Cup in and the European Super Cup in and to have played in the final of the European Cup in and Its run of straight wins in is another record, equal to the one held by Dinamo as of one year later.
Tudorel Stoica is the player with the most appearances for Steaua in Liga I, a record unlikely to be broken in the nearby future, as none of the current players have entered the top-ten so far.
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